26
Oct
12

PAMUKKALE – „Castelul de bumbac”, HIERAPOLIS (TURCIA)

 

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Pamukkale: plajă şi baie în căzile uriaşe „din bumbac”
Sursa text: Andreea Dogar http://www.evz.ro

La prima vedere, Pamukkale pare un troian uriaş din zăpadă pufoasă ce sclipeşte sub razele soarelui într-o zi frumoasă de iarnă. De fapt, dealul nu s-a format în urma ninsorilor abundente, ci este o colină din calcar.

Din loc în loc, din burta colinei ies în afară bazine naturale cu apă caldă şi limpede în care turiştii pot face baie nestingheriţi. Acestea sunt faimoasele terase din travertin, o rocă poroasă din calcar ce a luat naştere la gura de vărsare a izvoarelor termale.

Datorită aspectului pufos al rocii albe, localitatea din provincia Denizli, din sud-vestul Turciei, a fost numită „Pamukkale”, cuvânt ce înseamnă „castel de bumbac” în limba turcă.

Peisajul aproape ireal de la Pamukkale – cu bazine ce par tăiate în piatră de mâna omului şi cascade pietrificate de-a lungul vremii – a fost introdus pe lista Patrimoniului Mondial UNESCO în anul 1988.

Când apa izvoarelor, suprasaturată cu carbonat de calciu, ajunge la suprafaţă, dioxidul de carbon iese din ea, iar carbonatul de calciu este depozitat sub forma unui jeleu moale. Treptat, acesta se întăreşte şi devine travertin (roca albă cu aspect pufos).

Izvoarele calde din Pamukkale au fost folosite pe post de „jacuzzi” începând cu secolul al II-lea î.Hr. Oamenii veneau aici pentru a-şi trata afecţiunile, iar mulţi dintre ei se retrăgeau în localitatea Hierapolis când ajungeau la bătrâneţe.

La Pamukkale există 17 izvoare cu apă termală cu temperaturi mai mari de 35 de grade Celsius. În unele zone, peste terasele din calcar roşiatic şiroiesc şuvoaie de apă caldă. Pentru a proteja formaţiunile din travertin, turiştii nu au voie să poarte încălţăminte (încălţările trebuie lăsate la intrare). E bine de ştiut că suprafaţa este foarte alunecoasă.

Cu unghiuri drepte sau margini lucioase, bazinele par şlefuite de om, însă ele s-au format în mod natural, prin depozitarea carbonatului de calciu. Aceste „căzi” naturale sunt puţin adânci, apa nedepăşind 20 de centimetri la mijloc.

La baza colinei de 160 de metri înălţime au fost construite câteva bazine artificiale.

Bogat în minerale, nămolul alb de pe fundul bazinelor poate fi folosit pentru tratarea unor afecţiuni.

De-a lungul timpului, unele bazine au secat.

La Pamukkale se afla  ruinele oraşului antic Hierapolis.

 

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Pamukkale, Cotton Castle of Turkey 

http://www.pamukkaleturkey.com/

Pamukkale, which means ‘Cotton Castle’ in Turkish, is known as 8th world wonder by Turkish people. Pamukkale is a natural site and a famous tourist attraction in south-western Turkey in the Denizli Province. Pamukkale is located in Turkey’s Inner Aegean region, in the River Menderes valley, which enjoys a temperate climate over the greater part of the year. The summers are hot and dry, and winters warm and rainy. Tourists travel from the coast of Antalya and the Aegean Sea to Pamukkale.

The water (35 degrees Celsius) which is flowing down the cliff of Pamukkale has turned the area into as white as cotton color, and carved this fantastic formation of stalactites and basins. Pamukkale is a very popular destination for a short visit, the stunning white calcium pools, which cling to the side of a ridge, have been long one of the most famous picture postal card views of Turkey. It is the largest and finest example of elaborate calcium formation in the world, which dominates the landscape miles around. Pamukkale was formed when a spring with a high content of dissolved calcium bicarbonate cascaded over the edge of the cliff, which cooled and hardened leaving calcium deposits. This formed into great natural pools, shelves and ridges, which tourists could plunge and splash in the hot water. According to ancient tradition, the waters within the pools are said to be advantageous in treating maladies and attracting people from all over the world. The calceous waters rise from the ground at a temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. In this white wonderland is an abundance of hot warm springs which are recommended for the treatment of high blood pressure, heart diseases, rheumatism, circulatory problems, nervous disorders, digestive maladies, nervous and physical exhaustion, eye & skin diseases and nutritional disorders.

Hotels were springing up from the 1970s to cater for the large influx of tourists, and shortly afterwards UNESCO declared it a World Heritage Site. But by the 1990s, this took its toll on the state of the calcium pools and restrictions were placed on these travertine terraces. Many hotels were knocked down, visitors are only allowed on major paths around the sites, and must remove footwear to stand on the calcium deposits. This seems to have been a successful move, as the water supply is now used for preservation and some of the damaged calcium deposits have been strengthened.

As you approach the site of Pamukkale / Hierapolis from Denizli, a long white smudge along the hills to the north suggests a landslide or open cast mine. Getting closer, this resolves into the edge of a plateau, more than 100m higher than the level of the river valley and absolutely smothered in white travertine terraces. Some are shaped like water lilies, other like shell – bathtubs with stalagmite feet, with simplest ones resembling bleached rice terraces out of an oriental engraving.

The ruins of Hierapolis are the other main attraction. The city was founded in 190 B.C. by Eumenes II, king of Pergamon. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries, it reached the height of its development as a Roman thermal bath center. Hierapolis has such extensive ruins which is suggested : the city walls, the octagonal Martyrium of St. Philip, the 2nd center theater, Temple of Apollo, basilica then the necropolis which covers 2 km. and contains some of the best examples of tomb styles; it is one of the best-preserved cemeteries in all of Anatolia. The East Bath is in archaeology museum housing many of the remains from Hierapolis.

Just outside Pamukkale are the Red Springs, the boiling waters of which have emerged from thousands of feet below the Earth’s surface to form ribbons of deep red, blue and yellow on the surrounding rocks.

 

 

Anunțuri

5 Responses to “PAMUKKALE – „Castelul de bumbac”, HIERAPOLIS (TURCIA)”


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